An injury can result in:
    • A broken (fractured) bone
      • Scapula, humerus bones
    • Damaged joint surfaces (cartilage surfaces) or aggravation of pre-existing arthritis
    • Contusion or bruise of the soft-tissues (skin, muscle) or bone
    • Sprain or tearing of the ligaments (cord-like connections) or surrounding capsule that stabilize the joint: leading to subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder
      • Anterior, posterior, superior and inferior capsular ligaments
    • Tear of the tendons that connect the muscles to the bones
      • Rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis) and
        bicepts tendons
    • Tear of the labrum which functions to stabilize the shoulder
    • Strain of the muscles
      • supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis, deltoid and bicepts
    • These can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, locking, catching, grinding, popping, fatigue, weakness, instability, and deformity